August 2014
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Day August 5, 2014

Symmetry breaking of solitons in one-dimensional parity-time-symmetric optical potentials

Jianke Yang

Symmetry breaking of solitons in a class of one-dimensional parity-time (PT) symmetric complex potentials with cubic nonlinearity is reported. In generic PT symmetric potentials, such symmetry breaking is forbidden. However, in a special class of PT-symmetric potentials \(V(x)=g^2(x)+αg(x)+ig′(x)\), where \(g(x)\) is a real and even function and α a real constant, symmetry breaking of solitons can occur. That is, a branch of non-PT-symmetric solitons can bifurcate out from the base branch of PT-symmetric solitons when the base branch’s power reaches a certain threshold. At the bifurcation point, the base branch changes stability, and the bifurcated branch can be stable.
Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Quantum noise effects with Kerr nonlinearity enhancement in coupled gain-loss waveguides

Bing He, Shu-Bin Yan, Jing Wang, Min Xiao

It is generally difficult to study the dynamical properties of a quantum system with both inherent quantum noises and non-perturbative nonlinearity. Due to the possibly drastic intensity increase of an input coherent light in the gain-loss waveguide couplers with parity-time (PT) symmetry, the Kerr effect from a nonlinearity added into the systems can be greatly enhanced, and is expected to create the macroscopic entangled states of the output light fields with huge photon numbers. Meanwhile, the quantum noises also coexist with the amplification and dissipation of the light fields. Under the interplay between the quantum noises and nonlinearity, the quantum dynamical behaviors of the systems become rather complicated. However, the important quantum noise effects have been mostly neglected in the previous studies about nonlinear PT symmetric systems. Here we present a solution to this non-perturbative quantum nonlinear problem, showing the real-time evolution of the system observables. The enhanced Kerr nonlinearity is found to give rise to a previously unknown decoherence effect that is irrelevant to the quantum noises, and imposes a limit on the emergence of macroscopic nonclassicality. In contrast to what happen in the linear systems, the quantum noises exert significant impact on the system dynamics, and can create the nonclassical light field states in conjunction with the enhanced Kerr nonlinearity. This first study on the noise involved quantum nonlinear dynamics of the coupled gain-loss waveguides can help to better understand the quantum noise effects in the broad nonlinear systems.
Quantum Physics (quant-ph)