Eva-Maria Graefe, Chiara Liverani

A generalised mean-field approximation for non-Hermitian many-particle systems has been introduced recently for a Bose-Hubbard dimer with complex on-site energies. Here we apply this approximation to a Bose-Hubbard dimer with a complex particle interaction term, modelling losses due to interactions in a two mode Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive the mean-field equations of motion leading to nonlinear dissipative Bloch dynamics, related to a nontrivial complex generalisation of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. It is shown that depending on the parameter values there can be up to six stationary states. Further, for small values of the interaction strength the dynamics shows limit cycles.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.7160

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Carl M. Bender, Mariagiovanna Gianfreda

The inspiration for this theoretical paper comes from recent experiments on a PT-symmetric system of two coupled optical whispering galleries (optical resonators). The optical system can be modeled as a pair of coupled linear oscillators, one with gain and the other with loss. If the coupled oscillators have a balanced loss and gain, the system is described by a Hamiltonian and the energy is conserved. This theoretical model exhibits two PT transitions depending on the size of the coupling parameter \epsilon. For small \epsilon the PT symmetry is broken and the system is not in equilibrium, but when \epsilon becomes sufficiently large, the system undergoes a transition to an equilibrium phase in which the PT symmetry is unbroken. For very large \(\epsilon\) the system undergoes a second transition and is no longer in equilibrium. The classical and the quantized versions of the system exhibit transitions at exactly the same values of \(\epsilon\).

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.7107

High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Jiteng Sheng, Mohammad-Ali Miri, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, Min Xiao

We demonstrate that a coherently-prepared four-level atomic medium can provide a versatile platform for realizing parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials. Different types of PT-symmetric potentials are proposed by appropriately tuning the exciting optical fields and the pertinent atomic parameters. Such reconfigurable and controllable systems can open up new avenues in observing PT-related phenomena with appreciable gain/loss contrast in coherent atomic media.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4908

Optics (physics.optics)

Miloslav Znojil

The practical use of non-Hermitian (i.e., typically, PT-symmetric) phenomenological quantum Hamiltonians is discussed as requiring an explicit reconstruction of the ad hoc Hilbert-space metrics which would render the time-evolution unitary. Just the N-dimensional matrix toy models Hamiltonians are considered, therefore. For them, the matrix elements of alternative metrics are constructed via solution of a coupled set of polynomial equations, using the computer-assisted symbolic manipulations for the purpose. The feasibility and some consequences of such a model-construction strategy are illustrated via a discrete square well model endowed with multi-parametric close-to-the-boundary real bidiagonal-matrix interaction. The degenerate exceptional points marking the phase transitions are then studied numerically. A way towards classification of their unfoldings in topologically non-equivalent dynamical scenarios is outlined.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4822

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Yogesh N. Joglekar, Clinton Thompson, Derek D. Scott, Gautam Vemuri

Over the last two decades, advances in fabrication have led to significant progress in creating patterned heterostructures that support either carriers, such as electrons or holes, with specific band structure or electromagnetic waves with a given mode structure and dispersion. In this article, we review the properties of light in coupled optical waveguides that support specific energy spectra, with or without the effects of disorder, that are well-described by a Hermitian tight-binding model. We show that with a judicious choice of the initial wave packet, this system displays the characteristics of a quantum particle, including transverse photonic transport and localization, and that of a classical particle. We extend the analysis to non-Hermitian, parity and time-reversal (\(\mathcal{PT}\)) symmetric Hamiltonians which physically represent waveguide arrays with spatially separated, balanced absorption or amplification. We show that coupled waveguides are an ideal candidate to simulate \(\mathcal{PT}\)-symmetric Hamiltonians and the transition from a purely real energy spectrum to a spectrum with complex conjugate eigenvalues that occurs in them.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3565

Optics (physics.optics); Disordered Systems and Neural Networks (cond-mat.dis-nn); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Gabriel Álvarez, Luis Martinez Alonso, Elena Medina

This paper deals with the determination of the S-curves in the theory of non-hermitian orthogonal polynomials with respect to exponential weights along suitable paths in the complex plane. It is known that the corresponding complex equilibrium potential can be written as a combination of Abelian integrals on a suitable Riemann surface whose branch points can be taken as the main parameters of the problem. Equations for these branch points can be written in terms of periods of Abelian differentials and are known in several equivalent forms. We select one of these forms and use a combination of analytic an numerical methods to investigate the phase structure of asymptotic zero densities of orthogonal polynomials and of asymptotic eigenvalue densities of random matrix models. As an application we give a complete description of the phases and critical processes of the standard cubic model.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3028

Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Ananya Ghatak, Bhabani Prasad Mandal

To develop a unitary quantum theory with probabilistic description for pseudo- Hermitian systems one needs to consider the theories in a different Hilbert space endowed with a positive definite metric operator. There are different approaches to find such metric operators. We compare the different approaches of calculating pos- itive definite metric operators in pseudo-Hermitian theories with the help of several explicit examples in non-relativistic as well as in relativistic situations. Exceptional points and spontaneous symmetry breaking are also discussed in these models.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2022

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Mohammad-Ali Miri, Matthias Heinrich, Demetrios N. Christodoulides

We show that the formalism of supersymmetry (SUSY), when applied to parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials, can give rise to novel refractive index landscapes with altogether non-trivial properties. In particular, we find that the presence of gain and loss allows for arbitrarily removing bound states from the spectrum of a structure. This is in stark contrast to the Hermitian case, where the SUSY formalism can only address the fundamental mode of a potential. Subsequently we investigate isospectral families of complex potentials that exhibit entirely real spectra, despite the fact that their shapes violate PT-symmetry. Finally, the role of SUSY transformations in the regime of spontaneously broken PT symmetry is investigated.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1689

Optics (physics.optics); Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Dorje C. Brody

Wigner’s theorem asserts that an isometric (probability conserving) transformation on a quantum state space must be generated by a Hamiltonian that is Hermitian. It is shown that when the Hermiticity condition on the Hamiltonian is relaxed, we obtain the following complex generalisation of Wigner’s theorem: a holomorphically projective (complex geodesic-curves preserving) transformation on a quantum state space must be generated by a Hamiltonian that is not necessarily Hermitian.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.0658

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Differential Geometry (math.DG)