Kazunari Hashimoto, Kazuki Kanki, Hisao Hayakawa, Tomio Petrosky

We propose a regular representation for a non-Hermitian operator even if the parameter space contains exceptional points (EPs), at which the operator cannot be diagonalized and the usual spectral representation ceases to exist. Our representation has a generalized Jordan block form and is written in terms of extended pseudo-eigenstates. Our method is free from the difficulty of the singularity of the spectral representation at EPs, at which multiple eigenvalues and eigenvectors coalesce and the eigenvectors cannot be normalized. Our representation improves the accuracy of numerical calculations of physical quantities near EPs. We also find that our method is applicable to various problems related to EPs in the parameter space of non-Hermitian operators. We demonstrate the usefulness of our representation by investigating Boltzmann’s collision operator in a one-dimensional quantum Lorentz gas in the weak coupling approximation.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7453

Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)

J. Cuevas-Maraver, A. Khare, P.G. Kevrekidis, H. Xu, A. Saxena

In the present work, we explore the case of a general PT-symmetric dimer in the context of two both linearly and nonlinearly coupled cubic oscillators. To obtain an analytical handle on the system, we first explore the rotating wave approximation converting it into a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger type dimer. In the latter context, the stationary solutions and their stability are identified numerically but also wherever possible analytically. Solutions stemming from both symmetric and anti-symmetric special limits are identified. A number of special cases are explored regarding the ratio of coefficients of nonlinearity between oscillators over the intrinsic one of each oscillator. Finally, the considerations are extended to the original oscillator model, where periodic orbits and their stability are obtained. When the solutions are found to be unstable their dynamics is monitored by means of direct numerical simulations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7218

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD); Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI)

Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, KyungWan Yoo, Jonghwa Shin, Namkyoo Park

The concept of parity-time (PT) symmetry has been used to identify a novel route to nonreciprocal dynamics in optical momentum space, imposing the directionality on the flow of light. Whereas PT-symmetric potentials have been implemented under the requirement of \(V(x) = V*(-x)\), this precondition has only been interpreted within the mathematical frame for the symmetry of Hamiltonians and has not been directly linked to nonreciprocity. Here, within the context of light-matter interactions, we develop an alternative route to nonreciprocity in momentum space by employing the concept of causality. We demonstrate that potentials with real and causal momentum spectra produce unidirectional transitions of optical states inside the k-continuum, which corresponds to an exceptional point on the degree of PT-symmetry. Our analysis reveals a critical link between non-Hermitian problems and spectral theory and enables the multi-dimensional manipulation of optical states, in contrast to one-dimensional control from the use of a Schrodinger-like equation in previous PT-symmetric optics.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7031

Optics (physics.optics)

Eva-Maria Graefe, Hans Jürgen Korsch, Alexander Rush, Roman Schubert

The non-Hermitian quadratic oscillator studied by Swanson is one of the popular PT-symmetric model systems. Here a full classical description of its dynamics is derived using recently developed metriplectic flow equations, which combine the classical symplectic flow for Hermitian systems with a dissipative metric flow for the anti-Hermitian part. Closed form expressions for the metric and phase-space trajectories are presented which are found to be periodic in time. Since the Hamiltonian is only quadratic the classical dynamics exactly describes the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wave packets. It is shown that the classical metric and trajectories as well as the quantum wave functions can diverge in finite time even though the PT-symmetry is unbroken, i.e., the eigenvalues are purely real.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.6456

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Dennis Dast, Daniel Haag, Holger Cartarius, Günter Wunner

We present a quantum master equation describing a Bose-Einstein condensate with particle loss on one lattice site and particle gain on the other lattice site whose mean-field limit is a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that the characteristic properties of PT-symmetric systems, such as the existence of stationary states and the phase shift of pulses between two lattice sites, are also found in the many-particle system. Visualizing the dynamics on a Bloch sphere allows us to compare the complete dynamics of the master equation with that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that even for a relatively small number of particles the dynamics are in excellent agreement and the master equation with balanced gain and loss is indeed an appropriate many-particle description of a PT-symmetric Bose-Einstein condensate.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.6189

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas)

Henning Schomerus, Jan Wiersig

Coupled-resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) are known to have interesting and useful dispersion properties. Here, we study the transport in these waveguides in the general case where each resonator is open and asymmetric, i.e., is leaky and possesses no mirror-reflection symmetry. Each individual resonator then exhibits asymmetric backscattering between clockwise and counterclockwise propagating waves, which in combination with the losses induces non-orthogonal eigenmodes. In a chain of such resonators, the coupling between the resonators induces an additional source of non-hermiticity, and a complex band structure arises. We show that in this situation the group velocity of wave packets differs from the velocity associated with the probability density flux, with the difference arising from a non-hermitian correction to the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Exploring these features numerically in a realistic scenario, we find that the complex band structure comprises almost-real branches and complex branches, which are joined by exceptional points, i.e., nonhermitian degeneracies at which not only the frequencies and decay rates coalesce but also the eigenmodes themselves. The non-hermitian corrections to the group velocity are largest in the regions around the exceptional points.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.5037

Optics (physics.optics); Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics (cond-mat.mes-hall)

Fabian Single, Holger Cartarius, Günter Wunner, Jörg Main

We show how non-Hermitian potentials used to describe probability gain and loss in effective theories of open quantum systems can be achieved by a coupling of the system to an environment. We do this by coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in an attractive double-delta potential to a condensate fraction outside the double well. We investigate which requirements have to be imposed on possible environments with a linear coupling to the system. This information is used to determine an environment required for stationary states of the BEC. To investigate the stability of the system we use fully numerical simulations of the dynamics. It turns out that the approach is viable and possible setups for the realization of a PT-symmetric potential for a BEC are accessible. Vulnerabilities of the whole system to small perturbations can be adhered to the singular character of the simplified delta-shaped potential used in our model.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7490

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas)

Carl M. Bender, Mariagiovanna Gianfreda

In 1980 Englert examined the classic problem of the electromagnetic self-force on an oscillating charged particle. His approach, which was based on an earlier idea of Bateman, was to introduce a charge-conjugate particle and to show that the two-particle system is Hamiltonian. Unfortunately, Englert’s model did not solve the problem of runaway modes, and the corresponding quantum theory had ghost states. It is shown here that Englert’s Hamiltonian is PT symmetric, and that the problems with his model arise because the PT symmetry is broken at both the classical and quantum level. However, by allowing the charged particles to interact and by adjusting the coupling parameters to put the model into an unbroken PT-symmetric region, one eliminates the classical runaway modes and obtains a corresponding quantum system that is ghost free.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3828

High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

A non-Hermitian N−level quantum model with two free real parameters is proposed in which the bound-state energies are given as roots of an elementary trigonometric expression and in which they are, in a physical domain of parameters, all real. The wave function components are expressed as closed-form superpositions of two Chebyshev polynomials. In any eligible physical Hilbert space of finite dimension \(N<\infty\) our model is constructed as unitary with respect to an underlying Hilbert-space metric \(\Theta\neq I\). The simplest version of the latter metric is finally constructed, at any dimension N=2,3,…, in closed form. This version of the model may be perceived as an exactly solvable N−site lattice analogue of the \(N=\infty\) square well with complex Robin-type boundary conditions. At any \(N<\infty\) our closed-form metric becomes trivial (i.e., equal to the most common Dirac’s metric \(\Theta(Dirac)=I\)) at the special, Hermitian-Hamiltonian-limit parameters.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3788

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

C. Mejía-Cortés, M. I. Molina

We examine a one-dimensional PT-symmetric binary lattice in the presence of diagonal disorder. We focus on the wave transport phenomena of localized and extended input beams for this disordered system. In the pure PT-symmetric case, we derive an exact expression for the evolution of light localization in terms of the typical parameters of the system. In this case localization is enhanced as the gain and loss parameter in increased. In the presence of disorder, we observe that the presence of gain and loss inhibits (favors) the transport for localized (extended) excitations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3412

Optics (physics.optics)