B. Bagchi, A. Ghose Choudhury, Partha Guha

We explore the Jacobi Last Multiplier as a means for deriving the Lagrangian of a fourth-order differential equation. In particular we consider the classical problem of the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator and write down the accompanying Hamiltonian. We then compare such an expression with an alternative derivation of the Hamiltonian that makes use of the Ostrogradski’s method and show that a mapping from the one to the other is achievable by variable transformations. Assuming canonical quantization procedure to be valid we go for the operator version of the Hamiltonian that represents a pair of uncoupled oscillators. This motivates us to propose a generalized Pais-Uhlenbeck Hamiltonian in terms of the usual harmonic oscillator creation and annihilation operators by including terms quadratic and linear in them. Such a Hamiltonian turns out to be essentially non-Hermitian but has an equivalent Hermitian representation which is reducible to a typically position-dependent reduced mass form.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.2092

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Jia-wen Deng, Uwe Guenther, Qing-hai Wang

Three ways of constructing a non-Hermitian matrix with possible all real eigenvalues are discussed. They are PT symmetry, pseudo-Hermiticity, and generalized PT symmetry. Parameter counting is provided for each class. All three classes of matrices have more real parameters than a Hermitian matrix with the same dimension. The generalized PT-symmetric matrices are most general among the three. All self-adjoint matrices process a generalized PT symmetry. For a given matrix, it can be both PT-symmetric and P’-pseudo-Hermitian with respect to some P’ operators. The relation between corresponding P and P’ operators is established. The Jordan block structures of each class are discussed. Explicit examples in 2×2 are shown.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1861

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

K. Li, D. A. Zezyulin, V. V. Konotop, P. G. Kevrekidis

In this work, we propose a PT-symmetric coupler whose arms are birefringent waveguides as a realistic physical model which leads to a so-called quadrimer i.e., a four complex field setting. We seek stationary solutions of the resulting linear and nonlinear model, identifying its linear point of PT symmetry breaking and examining the corresponding nonlinear solutions that persist up to this point, as well as, so-called, ghost states that bifurcate from them. We obtain the relevant symmetry breaking bifurcations and numerically follow the associated dynamics which give rise to growth/decay even within the PT-symmetric phase. Our obtained stationary nonlinear solutions are found to terminate in saddle-center bifurcations which are analogous to the linear PT-phase transition.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.1676

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Keiichi Nagao, Holger Bech Nielsen

We briefly review the correspondence principle proposed in our previous paper, which claims that if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time \(T_B\) and the past state at time \(T_A\) as an expectation value in the complex action theory whose path runs over not only past but also future, the expectation value at the present time \(t\) of a future-included theory for large \(T_B-t\) and large \(t- T_A\) corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large \(t- T_A\). This correspondence principle suggests that the future-included theory is not excluded phenomenologically.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7269

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Sanjib Dey, Andreas Fring, Laure Gouba, Paulo G. Castro

We investigate properties of generalized time-dependent q-deformed coherent states for a noncommutative harmonic oscillator. The states are shown to satisfy a generalized version of Heisenberg’s uncertainty relations. For the initial value in time the states are demonstrated to be squeezed, i.e. the inequalities are saturated, whereas when time evolves the uncertainty product oscillates away from this value albeit still respecting the relations. For the canonical variables on a noncommutative space we verify explicitly that Ehrenfest’s theorem hold at all times. We conjecture that the model exhibits revival times to infinite order. Explicit sample computations for the fractional revival times and superrevival times are presented.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.4791

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

The quantum-catastrophe (QC) benchmark Hamiltonians of paper I (M. Znojil, J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 (2012) 444036) are reconsidered, with the infinitesimal QC distance \(\lambda\) replaced by the total time $\tau$ of the fall into the singularity. Our amended model becomes unique, describing the complete QC history as initiated by a Hermitian and diagonalized N-level oscillator Hamiltonian at \(\tau=0\). In the limit \(\tau \to 1\) the system finally collapses into the completely (i.e., N-times) degenerate QC state. The closed and compact Hilbert-space metrics are then calculated and displayed up to N=7. The phenomenon of the QC collapse is finally attributed to the manifest time-dependence of the Hilbert space and, in particular, to the emergence and to the growth of its anisotropy. A quantitative measure of such a time-dependent anisotropy is found in the spread of the N-plet of the eigenvalues of the metric. Unexpectedly, the model appears exactly solvable — at any multiplicity N, the N-plet of these eigenvalues is obtained in closed form.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.0734

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

X. Z. Zhang, L. Jin, Z. Song

Complex potential and non-Hermitian hopping amplitude are building blocks of a non-Hermitian quantum network. Appropriate configuration, such as PT-symmetric distribution, can lead to the full real spectrum. To investigate the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon, we study the phase diagram of a semi-infinite non-Hermitian system. It consists of a finite non-Hermitian cluster and a semi-infinite lead. Based on the analysis of the solution of the concrete systems, it is shown that it can have the full real spectrum without any requirements on the symmetry and the wave function within the lead becomes a unidirectional plane wave at the exceptional point. This universal dynamical behavior is demonstrated as the persistent emission and reflectionless absorption of wave packets in the typical non-Hermitian systems containing the complex on-site potential and non-Hermitian hopping amplitude.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1212.0086

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Belal E. Baaquie

The Euclidean action with acceleration has been analyzed in [1], hereafter cited as reference I, for its Hamiltonian and path integral. In this paper, the state space of the Hamiltonian is analyzed for the case when it is pseudo-Hermitian (equivalent to a Hermitian Hamiltonian), as well as the case when it is inequivalent. The propagator is computed using both creation/destruction operators as well as the path integral. A state space calculation of the propagator shows the crucial role played by the dual state vectors that yields a result impossible to obtain from a Hermitian Hamiltonian acting on a Hilbert space. When it is not pseudo-Hermitian, the Hamiltonian is shown to be a direct sum of Jordan blocks.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7166

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Belal E. Baaquie

An action having an acceleration term in addition to the usual velocity term is analyzed. The quantum mechanical system is directly defined for Euclidean time using the path integral. The Euclidean Hamiltonian is shown to yield the acceleration Lagrangian and the path integral with the correct boundary conditions. Due to the acceleration term, the state space depends on both position and velocity, and hence the Euclidean Hamiltonian depends on two degrees of freedom. The Hamiltonian for the acceleration system is non-Hermitian and can be mapped to a Hermitian Hamiltonian using a similarity transformation; the matrix elements of this unbounded transformation is explicitly evaluated. The mapping fails for a critical value of the coupling constants.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1211.7168

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)