Victor A. Vysloukh, Yaroslav V. Kartashov

We study resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric multimode waveguides, where symmetry breaking manifests itself in sequential destabilization (appearance of the complex eigenvalues) of the pairs of adjacent guided modes. We show that the efficient mode conversion is possible even in the presence of the resonant longitudinal modulation of the complex refractive index. The distinguishing feature of the resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric structure is a drastic growth of the width of the resonance curve when the gain/losses coefficient approaches a critical value, at which symmetry breaking occurs. We found that in the system with broken symmetry the resonant coupling between exponentially growing mode with stable higher-order one effectively stabilizes dynamically coupled pair of modes and remarkably diminishes the average rate of the total power growth.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2422

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Boris A. Malomed, Lluis Torner

We consider bright solitons supported by a symmetric inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinearity growing rapidly enough toward the periphery of the medium, combined with an antisymmetric gain-loss profile. Despite the absence of any symmetric modulation of the linear refractive index, which is usually required to establish a PT-symmetry in the form of a purely real spectrum of modes, we show that the PT-symmetry is never broken in the present system, and that the system always supports stable bright solitons, fundamental and multi-pole ones. Such phenomenon is connected to non-linearizability of the underlying evolution equation. The increase of the gain-losses strength results, in lieu of the PT-symmetry breaking, in merger of pairs of different soliton branches, such as fundamental and dipole, or tripole and quadrupole ones. The fundamental and dipole solitons remain stable for all values of the gain-loss coefficient.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.6174

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Changming Huang, Fangwei Ye, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Boris A Malomed, Xianfeng Chen

The concept of the PT-symmetry, originating from the quantum field theory, has been intensively investigated in optics, stimulated by the similarity between the Schr\”odinger equation and the paraxial wave equation that governs the propagation of light in a guiding structure. We go beyond the bounds of the paraxial approximation and demonstrate, using the solution of the Maxwell’s equations for light beams propagating in deeply subwavelength waveguides and periodic lattices with “balanced” gain and loss, that the PT symmetry may stay unbroken in this setting. Moreover, the PT-symmetry in subwavelength optical structures may be restored after being initially broken upon the increase of gain and loss. Critical gain/loss levels, at which the breakup and subsequent restoration of the PT symmetry occur, strongly depend on the scale of the structure.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.2630

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Vladimir V. Konotop, Fatkhulla Kh. Abdullaev

We report a diversity of stable gap solitons in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a spatially periodic Zeeman field. It is shown that the solitons, can be classified by the main physical symmetries they obey, i.e. symmetries with respect to parity (P), time (T), and internal degree of freedom, i.e. spin, (C) inversions. The conventional gap and gap-stripe solitons are obtained in lattices with different parameters. It is shown that solitons of the same type but obeying different symmetries can exist in the same lattice at different spatial locations. PT and CPT symmetric solitons have anti-ferromagnetic structure and are characterized respectively by nonzero and zero total magnetizations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.8517

Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Yaroslav V. Kartashov

I study vector solitons involving two incoherently-coupled field components in periodic PT-symmetric optical lattices. The specific symmetry of the lattice imposes the restrictions on the symmetry of available vector soliton states. While all configurations with asymmetric intensity distributions are prohibited, such lattices support multi-hump solitons with equal number of “in-phase” or “out-of-phase” spots in two components, residing on neighboring lattice channels. In the focusing medium only the solitons containing out-of-phase spots in at least one component can be stable, while in the defocusing medium stability is achieved for structures consisting of in-phase spots. Mixed-gap vector solitons with components emerging from different gaps in the lattice spectrum also exist and can be stable in the PT-symmetric lattice.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.6743

Optics (physics.optics); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)