Miloslav Znojil

For non-Hermitian equilateral q-pointed star-shaped quantum graphs of paper I [Can. J. Phys. 90, 1287 (2012), arXiv 1205.5211] we show that due to certain dynamical aspects of the model as controlled by the external, rotation-symmetric complex Robin boundary conditions, the spectrum is obtainable in a closed asymptotic-expansion form, in principle at least. Explicit formulae up to the second order are derived for illustration, and a few comments on their consequences are added.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.3828

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Spectral Theory (math.SP)

Miloslav Znojil

Among quantum systems with finite Hilbert space a specific role is played by systems controlled by non-Hermitian Hamiltonian matrices \(H\neq H^\dagger\) for which one has to upgrade the Hilbert-space metric by replacing the conventional form \(\Theta^{(Dirac)}=I\) of this metric by a suitable upgrade \(\Theta^{(non−Dirac)}\neq I\) such that the same Hamiltonian becomes self-adjoint in the new, upgraded Hilbert space, \(H=H\ddagger=\Theta^{−1}H^\dagger\Theta\). The problems only emerge in the context of scattering where the requirement of the unitarity was found to imply the necessity of a non-locality in the interaction, compensated by important technical benefits in the short-range-nonlocality cases. In the present paper we show that an why these technical benefits (i.e., basically, the recurrent-construction availability of closed-form Hermitizing metrics \(\Theta^{(non−Dirac)}\) can survive also in certain specific long-range-interaction models.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.3583

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

A non-Hermitian N−level quantum model with two free real parameters is proposed in which the bound-state energies are given as roots of an elementary trigonometric expression and in which they are, in a physical domain of parameters, all real. The wave function components are expressed as closed-form superpositions of two Chebyshev polynomials. In any eligible physical Hilbert space of finite dimension \(N<\infty\) our model is constructed as unitary with respect to an underlying Hilbert-space metric \(\Theta\neq I\). The simplest version of the latter metric is finally constructed, at any dimension N=2,3,…, in closed form. This version of the model may be perceived as an exactly solvable N−site lattice analogue of the \(N=\infty\) square well with complex Robin-type boundary conditions. At any \(N<\infty\) our closed-form metric becomes trivial (i.e., equal to the most common Dirac’s metric \(\Theta(Dirac)=I\)) at the special, Hermitian-Hamiltonian-limit parameters.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3788

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

It is shown that the toy-model-based considerations of loc. cit. (see also arXiv:1312.3395) are based on an incorrect, manifestly unphysical choice of the Hilbert space of admissible quantum states. A two-parametric family of all of the eligible correct and potentially physical Hilbert spaces of the model is then constructed. The implications of this construction are discussed. In particular, it is emphasized that contrary to the conclusions of loc. cit. there is no reason to believe that the current form of the PT-symmetric quantum theory should be false as a fundamental theory.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.1555

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Geza Levai, Frantisek Ruzicka, Miloslav Znojil

Three classes of finite-dimensional models of quantum systems exhibiting spectral degeneracies called quantum catastrophes are described in detail. Computer-assisted symbolic manipulation techniques are shown unexpectedly efficient for the purpose.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1403.0723

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

The elementary quadratic plus inverse sextic interaction containing a strongly singular repulsive core in the origin is made regular by a complex shift of coordinate \(x=s−i\epsilon\). The shift \(\epsilon>0\) is fixed while the value of s is kept real and potentially observable, \(s∈(−\infty,\infty)\). The low-lying energies of bound states are found in closed form for the large couplings g. Within the asymptotically vanishing \(\mathcal{O}(g^{−1/4})\) error bars these energies are real so that the time-evolution of the system may be expected unitary in an {\em ad hoc} physical Hilbert space.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1401.1435

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

The practical use of non-Hermitian (i.e., typically, PT-symmetric) phenomenological quantum Hamiltonians is discussed as requiring an explicit reconstruction of the ad hoc Hilbert-space metrics which would render the time-evolution unitary. Just the N-dimensional matrix toy models Hamiltonians are considered, therefore. For them, the matrix elements of alternative metrics are constructed via solution of a coupled set of polynomial equations, using the computer-assisted symbolic manipulations for the purpose. The feasibility and some consequences of such a model-construction strategy are illustrated via a discrete square well model endowed with multi-parametric close-to-the-boundary real bidiagonal-matrix interaction. The degenerate exceptional points marking the phase transitions are then studied numerically. A way towards classification of their unfoldings in topologically non-equivalent dynamical scenarios is outlined.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4822

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

A compact review is given, and a few new numerical results are added to the recent studies of the q-pointed one-dimensional star-shaped quantum graphs. These graphs are assumed endowed with certain specific, manifestly non-Hermitian point interactions, localized either in the inner vertex or in all of the outer vertices and carrying, in the latter case, an interesting zero-inflow interpretation.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.4331

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil

In a pre-selected Hilbert space of quantum states the unitarity of the evolution is usually guaranteed via a pre-selection of the generator (i.e., of the Hamiltonian operator) in self-adjoint form. In fact, the simultaneous use of both of these pre-selections is overrestrictive. One should be allowed to make a given Hamiltonian self-adjoint only after an {\em ad hoc} generalization of Hermitian conjugation. We argue that in the generalized, hidden-Hermiticity scenario with nontrivial metric, the current concept of solvability (meaning, most often, the feasibility of a non-numerical diagonalization of Hamiltonian) requires a generalization allowing for a non-numerical form of metric. A few illustrative solvable quantum models of this type are presented.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.2035

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Miloslav Znojil, Junde Wu

N-site-lattice Hamiltonians H are introduced and perceived as a set of systematic discrete approximants of a certain PT-symmetric square-well-potential model with the real spectrum and with a non-Hermiticity which is localized near the boundaries of the interval. Its strength is controlled by one, two or three parameters. The problem of the explicit construction of a nontrivial metric which makes the theory unitary is then addressed. It is proposed and demonstrated that due to the not too complicated tridiagonal-matrix form of our input Hamiltonians the computation of the metric is straightforward and that its matrix elements prove obtainable, non-numerically, in elementary polynomial forms.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.1662

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)