Sean Nixon, Jianke Yang

Light propagation in optical waveguides with periodically modulated index of refraction and alternating gain and loss are investigated for linear and nonlinear systems. Based on a multiscale perturbation analysis, it is shown that for many non-parity-time (PT) symmetric waveguides, their linear spectrum is partially complex, thus light exponentially grows or decays upon propagation, and this growth or delay is not altered by nonlinearity. However, several classes of non-PT-symmetric waveguides are also identified to possess all-real linear spectrum. In the nonlinear regime longitudinally periodic and transversely quasi-localized modes are found for PT-symmetric waveguides both above and below phase transition. These nonlinear modes are stable under evolution and can develop from initially weak initial conditions.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.6113

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Sean Nixon, Jianke Yang

Solitons in one-dimensional parity-time (PT)-symmetric periodic potentials are studied using exponential asymptotics. The new feature of this exponential asymptotics is that, unlike conservative periodic potentials, the inner and outer integral equations arising in this analysis are both coupled systems due to complex-valued solitons. Solving these coupled systems, we show that two soliton families bifurcate out from each Bloch-band edge for either self-focusing or self-defocusing nonlinearity. An asymptotic expression for the eigenvalues associated with the linear stability of these soliton families is also derived. This formula shows that one of these two soliton families near band edges is always unstable, while the other can be stable. In addition, infinite families of PT-symmetric multi-soliton bound states are constructed by matching the exponentially small tails from two neighboring solitons. These analytical predictions are compared with numerics. Overall agreements are observed, and minor differences explained.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.2827

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Optics (physics.optics)

Sean Nixon, Yi Zhu, Jianke Yang

Nonlinear dynamics of wave packets in PT-symmetric optical lattices near the phase-transition point are analytically studied. A nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is derived for the envelope of these wave packets. A variety of novel phenomena known to exist in this envelope equation are shown to also exist in the full equation including wave blowup, periodic bound states and solitary wave solutions.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.5995

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)