H.Xu, P.G.Kevrekidis, Q.Zhou, D.J.Frantzeskakis, V.Achilleos, R.Carretero-Gonzalez

We study the nonlinear Schro¨dinger equation with a PT-symmetric potential. Using a hydrodynamic formulation and connecting the phase gradient to the field amplitude, allows for a reduction of the model to a Duffing or a generalized Duffing equation. This way, we can obtain exact soliton solutions existing in the presence of suitable PT-symmetric potentials, and study their stability and dynamics. We report interesting new features, including oscillatory instabilities of solitons and (nonlinear) PT-symmetry breaking transitions, for focusing and defocusing nonlinearities.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.7635

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

A. Thilagam

In natural light harvesting systems, the sequential quantum events of photon absorption by specialized biological antenna complexes, charge separation, exciton formation and energy transfer to localized reaction centers culminates in the conversion of solar to chemical energy. A notable feature in these processes is the exceptionally high efficiencies (> 95 %) at which excitation is transferred from the illuminated protein complex site to the reaction centers. Such high exciton propagation rates within a system of interwoven biomolecular network structures, is yet to be replicated in artificial light harvesting complexes. A clue to unraveling the quantum puzzles of nature may lie in the observation of long lived coherences lasting several picoseconds in the electronic spectra of photosynthetic complexes, even in noisy environmental baths. A number of experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to unlocking the links between quantum processes and information protocols, in the hope of finding answers to nature’s puzzling mode of energy propagation. This review presents developments in quantum theories, and links information-theoretic aspects with photosynthetic light-harvesting processes in biomolecular systems. There is examination of various attempts to pinpoint the processes that underpin coherence features arising from the light harvesting activities of biomolecular systems, with particular emphasis on the effects that factors such non-Markovianity, zeno mechanisms, teleportation, quantum predictability and the role of multipartite states have on the quantum dynamics of biomolecular systems. A discussion of how quantum thermodynamical principles and agent-based modeling and simulation approaches can improve our understanding of natural photosynthetic systems is included.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.7761

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Biological Physics (physics.bio-ph); Chemical Physics (physics.chem-ph)

Xuele Liu, Subhasish Dutta Gupta, G.S. Agarwal

Spectral singularities are ubiquitous with PT-symmetry leading to infinite transmission and reflection coefficients. Such infinities imply the divergence of the fields in the medium thereby breaking the very assumption of the linearity of the medium used to obtain such singularities. We identify saturable nonlinearity retaining contributions from all orders of the field to limit the infinite growth and regularize the spectral singularity. We present explicit numerical results to demonstrate regularization. The all order nonlinear PT-symmetric device is shown to exhibit very effective isolation or optical diode action, since transmission through such a system is nonreciprocal. In contrast, a linear system or a system with Kerr nonlinearity is known to have only reciprocal transmission. Further we demonstrate optical bistability for such a system with high contrast.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.8282

Optics (physics.optics)