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Month October 2013

Non-hermitian approach to decaying ultracold bosonic systems

S. Wimberger, C. A. Parra-Murillo, G. Kordas

A paradigm model of modern atom optics is studied, strongly interacting ultracold bosons in an optical lattice. This many-body system can be artificially opened in a controlled manner by modern experimental techniques. We present results based on a non-hermitian effective Hamiltonian whose quantum spectrum is analyzed. The direct access to the spectrum of the metastable many-body system allows us to easily identify relatively stable quantum states, corresponding to previously predicted solitonic many-body structures.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.5937
Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Conservative and PT-symmetric compactons in waveguide networks

A. V. Yulin, V. V. Konotop

Stable discrete compactons in arrays of inter-connected three-line waveguide arrays are found in linear and nonlinear limits in conservative and in parity-time PT symmetric models. The compactons result from the interference of the fields in the two lines of waveguides ensuring that the third (middle) line caries no energy. PT-symmetric compactons require not only the presence of gain and losses in the two lines of the waveguides but also complex coupling, i.e. gain and losses in the coupling between the lines carrying the energy and the third line with zero field. The obtained compactons can be stable and their branches can cross the branches of the dissipative solitons. Unusual bifurcations of branches of solitons from linear compactons are described.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.5328
Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Convective and absolute PT symmetry breaking in tight-binding lattices

Stefano Longhi

We investigate the onset of parity-time (PT) symmetry breaking in non-Hermitian tight-binding lattices with spatially-extended loss/gain regions in presence of an advective term. Similarly to the instability properties of hydrodynamic open flows, it is shown that PT-symmetry breaking can be either absolute or convective. In the former case, an initially-localized wave packet shows a secular growth with time at any given spatial position, whereas in the latter case the growth is observed in a reference frame moving at some drift velocity while decay occurs at any fixed spatial position. In the convective unstable regime, PT-symmetry is restored when the spatial region of gain/loss in the lattice is limited (rather than extended). We consider specifically a non-Hermitian extension of the Rice-Mele tight binding lattice model, and show the existence of a transition from absolute to convective symmetry breaking when the advective term is large enough. An extension of the analysis to ac-dc-driven lattices is also presented, and an optical implementation of the non-Hermitian Rice-Mele model is suggested, which is based on light transport in an array of evanescently-coupled optical waveguides with a periodically-bent axis and alternating regions of optical gain and loss.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.5004
Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics (cond-mat.mes-hall)

A non self-adjoint model on a two dimensional noncommutative space with unbound metric

Fabio Bagarello, Andreas Fring

We demonstrate that a non self-adjoint Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator type defined on a two-dimensional noncommutative space can be diagonalized exactly by making use of pseudo-bosonic operators. The model admits an antilinear symmetry and is of the type studied in the context of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics. Its eigenvalues are computed to be real for the entire range of the coupling constants and the biorthogonal sets of eigenstates for the Hamiltonian and its adjoint are explicitly constructed. We show that despite the fact that these sets are complete and biorthogonal, they involve an unbounded metric operator and therefore do not constitute (Riesz) bases for the Hilbert space \(\Lc^2(\Bbb R^2)\), but instead only D-quasi bases. As recently proved by one of us (FB), this is sufficient to deduce several interesting consequences.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.4775

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Necessity of PT symmetry for soliton families in one-dimensional complex potentials

Jianke Yang

For the one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a complex potential, it is shown that if this potential is not parity-time (PT) symmetric, then no continuous families of solitons can bifurcate out from linear guided modes, even if the linear spectrum of this potential is all real. Both localized and periodic non-PT-symmetric potentials are considered, and the analytical conclusion is corroborated by explicit examples. Based on this result, it is argued that PT-symmetry of a one-dimensional complex potential is a necessary condition for the existence of soliton families.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.4490
Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Optics (physics.optics)

Optical Asymmetry Induced by PT-symmetric Nonlinear Fano Resonances

F. Nazari, N. Bender, H. Ramezani, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, D. N. Christodoulides, T. Kottos

We introduce a new type of Fano resonances, realized in a photonic circuit which consists of two nonlinear PT-symmetric micro-resonators side-coupled to a waveguide, which have line-shape and resonance position that depends on the direction of the incident light. We utilize these features in order to induce asymmetric transport up to 47 dBs in the optical C-window. Our set-up requires low input power and does not compromise the power and frequency characteristics of the output signal.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.2313
Optics (physics.optics)

A Dynamical Formulation of One-Dimensional Scattering Theory and Its Applications in Optics

Ali Mostafazadeh

We develop a dynamical formulation of one-dimensional scattering theory where the reflection and transmission amplitudes for a general, possibly complex and energy-dependent, scattering potential are given as solutions of a set of dynamical equations. By decoupling and partially integrating these equations, we reduce the scattering problem to a second order linear differential equation with universal initial conditions that is equivalent to an initial-value time-independent Schrodinger equation. We give explicit formulas for the reflection and transmission amplitudes in terms of the solution of either of these equations and employ them to outline an inverse-scattering method for constructing finite-range potentials with desirable scattering properties at any prescribed wavelength. In particular, we construct optical potentials displaying threshold lasing, anti-lasing, and unidirectional invisibility.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0592
Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th); Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Optics (physics.optics)

\(\cal D\) pseudo-bosons in quantum models

F. Bagarello, M. Lattuca

We show how some recent models of PT-quantum mechanics perfectly fit into the settings of \(\cal D\) pseudo-bosons, as introduced by one of us. Among the others, we also consider a model of non-commutative quantum mechanics, and we show that this model too can be described in terms of \(\cal D\) pseudo-bosons.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.0359
Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Scattering of gap solitons by PT-symmetric defects

F. Kh. Abdullaev, V.A. Brazhnyi, M. Salerno

The resonant scattering of gap solitons (GS) of the periodic nonlinear Schr\”odinger equation with a localized defect which is symmetric under the parity and the time-reversal (PT) symmetry, is investigated. It is shown that for suitable amplitudes ratios of the real and imaginary parts of the defect potential the resonant transmission of the GS through the defect becomes possible. The resonances occur for potential parameters which allow the existence of localized defect modes with the same energy and norm of the incoming GS. Scattering properties of GSs of different band-gaps with effective masses of opposite sign are investigated. The possibility of unidirectional transmission and blockage of GSs by PT defect, as well as, amplification and destruction induced by multiple reflections from two PT defects, are also discussed.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.7655

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Atomic Physics (physics.atom-ph); Optics (physics.optics)