Zafar Ahmed, Joseph Amal Nathan

It is known that when two identical waves are injected from left and right on a complex PT-symmetric scattering potential the two-port s-matrix can have uni-modular eigenvalues. If this happens for all energies, there occurs a perfect emission of waves at both ends. We call this phenomenon transparency. Using the versatile PT-Symmetric complex Scarf II potential, we demonstrate analytically that the transparency occurs when the potential has real discrete spectrum i.e., when PT-symmetry is exact(unbroken). Next, we find that exactness of PT-symmetry is only sufficient but not necessary for the transparency. Two other PT-symmetric domains of Scarf II reveal transparency without the PT-symmetry being exact. In these two cases there exist only scattering states. In one case the real part of the potential is a well devoid of real discrete spectrum and in the other real part is a barrier. Other numerically solved models also support our findings.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5530

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Stefano Longhi

We introduce a new class of \(\cal{PT}\)-symmetric complex crystals which are almost transparent and one-way reflectionless over a broad frequency range around the Bragg frequency, i.e. unidirectionally invisible, regardless of the thickness \(L\) of the crystal. The \(\cal{PT}\)-symmetric complex crystal is synthesized by a supersymmetric transformation of an Hermitian square well potential, and exact analytical expressions of transmission and reflection coefficients are given. As \(L\) is increased, the transmittance and reflectance from one side remain close to one and zero, respectively, whereas the reflectance from the other side secularly grows like ~\(L^2\) owing to unidirectional Bragg scattering. This is a distinctive feature as compared to the previously studied case of the complex sinusoidal \(\cal{PT}\)-symmetric potential \(V(x)=V_0\exp(−2ik_ox)\) at the symmetry breaking point, where transparency breaks down as \(L\to\infty\).

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.5278

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Rabin Banerjee, Pradip Mukherjee

We show that the elementary modes of the planar harmonic oscillator can be quantised in the framework of quantum mechanics based on pseudo-hermitian hamiltonians. These quantised modes are demonstrated to act as dynamical structures behind a new Jordan – Schwinger realization of the SU(1,1) algebra. This analysis complements the conventional Jordan – Schwinger construction of the SU(2) algebra based on hermitian hamiltonians of a doublet of oscillators.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.4678

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Miloslav Znojil

Among quantum systems with finite Hilbert space a specific role is played by systems controlled by non-Hermitian Hamiltonian matrices \(H\neq H^\dagger\) for which one has to upgrade the Hilbert-space metric by replacing the conventional form \(\Theta^{(Dirac)}=I\) of this metric by a suitable upgrade \(\Theta^{(non−Dirac)}\neq I\) such that the same Hamiltonian becomes self-adjoint in the new, upgraded Hilbert space, \(H=H\ddagger=\Theta^{−1}H^\dagger\Theta\). The problems only emerge in the context of scattering where the requirement of the unitarity was found to imply the necessity of a non-locality in the interaction, compensated by important technical benefits in the short-range-nonlocality cases. In the present paper we show that an why these technical benefits (i.e., basically, the recurrent-construction availability of closed-form Hermitizing metrics \(\Theta^{(non−Dirac)}\) can survive also in certain specific long-range-interaction models.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.3583

Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Victor A. Vysloukh, Yaroslav V. Kartashov

We study resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric multimode waveguides, where symmetry breaking manifests itself in sequential destabilization (appearance of the complex eigenvalues) of the pairs of adjacent guided modes. We show that the efficient mode conversion is possible even in the presence of the resonant longitudinal modulation of the complex refractive index. The distinguishing feature of the resonant mode conversion in the PT-symmetric structure is a drastic growth of the width of the resonance curve when the gain/losses coefficient approaches a critical value, at which symmetry breaking occurs. We found that in the system with broken symmetry the resonant coupling between exponentially growing mode with stable higher-order one effectively stabilizes dynamically coupled pair of modes and remarkably diminishes the average rate of the total power growth.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2422

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Matthew Russo, S. Roy Choudhury

This paper develops two approaches to Lax-integrbale systems with spatiotemporally varying coefficients. A technique based on extended Lax Pairs is first considered to derive variable-coefficient generalizations of various Lax-integrable NLPDE hierarchies recently introduced in the literature. As illustrative examples, we consider generalizations of the NLS and DNLS equations, as well as a PT-symmetric version of the NLS equation. It is demonstrated that the techniques yield Lax- or S-integrable NLPDEs with both time- AND space-dependent coefficients which are thus more general than almost all cases considered earlier via other methods such as the Painleve Test, Bell Polynomials, and various similarity methods. However, this technique, although operationally effective, has the significant disadvantage that, for any integrable system with spatiotemporally varying coefficients, one must ‘guess’ a generalization of the structure of the known Lax Pair for the corresponding system with constant coefficients. Motivated by the somewhat arbitrary nature of the above procedure, we therefore next attempt to systematize the derivation of Lax-integrable sytems with variable coefficients. We attempt to apply the Estabrook- Wahlquist (EW) prolongation technique, a relatively self-consistent procedure requiring little prior infomation. However, this immediately requires that the technique be significantly generalized or broadened in several different ways. The new and extended EW technique which results is illustrated by algorithmically deriving generalized Lax-integrable versions of NLS, PT-symmetric NLS, and DNLS equations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0645

Analysis of PDEs (math.AP); Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI)

Kazunari Hashimoto, Kazuki Kanki, Hisao Hayakawa, Tomio Petrosky

We propose a regular representation for a non-Hermitian operator even if the parameter space contains exceptional points (EPs), at which the operator cannot be diagonalized and the usual spectral representation ceases to exist. Our representation has a generalized Jordan block form and is written in terms of extended pseudo-eigenstates. Our method is free from the difficulty of the singularity of the spectral representation at EPs, at which multiple eigenvalues and eigenvectors coalesce and the eigenvectors cannot be normalized. Our representation improves the accuracy of numerical calculations of physical quantities near EPs. We also find that our method is applicable to various problems related to EPs in the parameter space of non-Hermitian operators. We demonstrate the usefulness of our representation by investigating Boltzmann’s collision operator in a one-dimensional quantum Lorentz gas in the weak coupling approximation.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7453

Statistical Mechanics (cond-mat.stat-mech)

J. Cuevas-Maraver, A. Khare, P.G. Kevrekidis, H. Xu, A. Saxena

In the present work, we explore the case of a general PT-symmetric dimer in the context of two both linearly and nonlinearly coupled cubic oscillators. To obtain an analytical handle on the system, we first explore the rotating wave approximation converting it into a discrete nonlinear Schrodinger type dimer. In the latter context, the stationary solutions and their stability are identified numerically but also wherever possible analytically. Solutions stemming from both symmetric and anti-symmetric special limits are identified. A number of special cases are explored regarding the ratio of coefficients of nonlinearity between oscillators over the intrinsic one of each oscillator. Finally, the considerations are extended to the original oscillator model, where periodic orbits and their stability are obtained. When the solutions are found to be unstable their dynamics is monitored by means of direct numerical simulations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7218

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD); Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI)

Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, KyungWan Yoo, Jonghwa Shin, Namkyoo Park

The concept of parity-time (PT) symmetry has been used to identify a novel route to nonreciprocal dynamics in optical momentum space, imposing the directionality on the flow of light. Whereas PT-symmetric potentials have been implemented under the requirement of \(V(x) = V*(-x)\), this precondition has only been interpreted within the mathematical frame for the symmetry of Hamiltonians and has not been directly linked to nonreciprocity. Here, within the context of light-matter interactions, we develop an alternative route to nonreciprocity in momentum space by employing the concept of causality. We demonstrate that potentials with real and causal momentum spectra produce unidirectional transitions of optical states inside the k-continuum, which corresponds to an exceptional point on the degree of PT-symmetry. Our analysis reveals a critical link between non-Hermitian problems and spectral theory and enables the multi-dimensional manipulation of optical states, in contrast to one-dimensional control from the use of a Schrodinger-like equation in previous PT-symmetric optics.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7031

Optics (physics.optics)

Eva-Maria Graefe, Hans Jürgen Korsch, Alexander Rush, Roman Schubert

The non-Hermitian quadratic oscillator studied by Swanson is one of the popular PT-symmetric model systems. Here a full classical description of its dynamics is derived using recently developed metriplectic flow equations, which combine the classical symplectic flow for Hermitian systems with a dissipative metric flow for the anti-Hermitian part. Closed form expressions for the metric and phase-space trajectories are presented which are found to be periodic in time. Since the Hamiltonian is only quadratic the classical dynamics exactly describes the quantum dynamics of Gaussian wave packets. It is shown that the classical metric and trajectories as well as the quantum wave functions can diverge in finite time even though the PT-symmetry is unbroken, i.e., the eigenvalues are purely real.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.6456

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)