\(E_2\)-quasi-exact solvability for non-Hermitian models

Andreas Fring

We propose the notion of \(E_2\)-quasi-exact solvability and apply this idea to find explicit solutions to the eigenvalue problem for a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian system depending on two parameters. The model considered reduces to the complex Mathieu Hamiltonian in a double scaling limit, which enables us to compute the exceptional points in the energy spectrum of the latter as a limiting process of the zeros for some algebraic equations. The coefficient functions in the quasi-exact eigenfunctions are univariate polynomials in the energy obeying a three-term recurrence relation. The latter property guarantees the existence of a linear functional such that the polynomials become orthogonal. The polynomials are shown to factorize for all levels above the quantization condition leading to vanishing norms rendering them to be weakly orthogonal. In two concrete examples we compute the explicit expressions for the Stieltjes measure.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Quantum star-graph analogues of PT-symmetric square wells. II: Spectra

Miloslav Znojil

For non-Hermitian equilateral q-pointed star-shaped quantum graphs of paper I [Can. J. Phys. 90, 1287 (2012), arXiv 1205.5211] we show that due to certain dynamical aspects of the model as controlled by the external, rotation-symmetric complex Robin boundary conditions, the spectrum is obtainable in a closed asymptotic-expansion form, in principle at least. Explicit formulae up to the second order are derived for illustration, and a few comments on their consequences are added.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Spectral Theory (math.SP)

Discrete solitons and vortices on two-dimensional lattices of PT-symmetric couplers

Zhaopin Chen, Jingfeng Liu, Shenhe Fu, Yongyao Li, Boris A. Malomed

We introduce a 2D network built of PT-symmetric dimers with on-site cubic nonlinearity, the gain and loss elements of the dimers being linked by parallel square-shaped lattices. The system may be realized as a set of PT-symmetric dual-core waveguides embedded into a photonic crystal. The system supports PT-symmetric and antisymmetric fundamental solitons (FSs) and on-site-centered solitary vortices (OnVs). Stability of these discrete solitons is the central topic of the consideration. Their stability regions in the underlying parameter space are identified through the computation of stability eigenvalues, and verified by direct simulations. Symmetric FSs represent the system’s ground state, being stable at lowest values of the power, while anti-symmetric FSs and OnVs are stable at higher powers. Symmetric OnVs, which are also stable at lower powers, are remarkably robust modes: on the contrary to other PT-symmetric states, unstable OnVs do not blow up, but spontaneously rebuild themselves into stable FSs.

Optics (physics.optics); Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

Pseudo PT-symmetric lattice

C. Yuce

We study pseudo PT symmetry for a tight binding lattice with a general form of the modulation. Using high-frequency Floquet method, we show that the critical non-Hermitian degree for the reality of the spectrum can be manipulated by varying the parameters of the modulation. We study the effect of periodical and quasi-periodical nature of the modulation on the pseudo PT symmetry.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Real discrete spectrum in complex non-PT-symmetric Scarf II potential

Zafar Ahmed, Amal Nathan Joseph

Hitherto, it is well known that complex PT-symmetric Scarf II has real discrete spectrum in the parametric domain of unbroken PT-symmetry. We reveal new interesting complex, non-PT-symmetric parametric domains of this versatile potential, \(V(x)\), where the spectrum is again discrete and real. Showing that the Hamiltonian, \(p^2/2m+V(x)\), is pseudo-Hermitian could be challenging, if possible.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Global existence of solutions to coupled PT-symmetric nonlinear Schrödinger equations

Dmitry E. Pelinovsky, Dmitry A. Zezyulin, Vladimir V. Konotop

We study a system of two coupled nonlinear Schrodinger equations, where one equation includes gain and the other one includes losses. Strengths of the gain and the loss are equal, i.e., the resulting system is parity-time (PT) symmetric. The model includes both linear and nonlinear couplings, such that when all nonlinear coefficients are equal, the system represents the PT-generalization of the Manakov model. In the one-dimensional case, we prove the existence of a global solution to the Cauchy problem in energy space \(H_1\), such that the \(H_1\)-norm of the global solution may grow in time. In the Manakov case, we show analytically that the \(L_2\)-norm of the global solution is bounded for all times and numerically that the \(H_1\)-norm is also bounded. In the two-dimensional case, we obtain a constraint on the \(L_2\)-norm of the initial data that ensures the existence of a global solution in the energy space \(H_1\).

Analysis of PDEs (math.AP)

Localization of the states of a PT-symmetric double well

Riccardo Giachetti, Vincenzo Grecchi

We make a nodal analysis of the processes of level crossings in a model of quantum mechanics with a PT-symmetric double well. We prove the existence of infinite crossings with their selection rules. At the crossing, before the PT-symmetry breaking and the localization, we have a total P-symmetry breaking of the states.

Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Reciprocity in parity violating non-Hermitian systems

Ananya Ghatak, Brijesh Kumar Mourya, Raka Dona Ray Mandal, Bhabani Prasad Mandal (BHU)

Reciprocity is shown so far only when the scattering potential is either real or parity symmetric complex. We extend this result for parity violating complex potential by considering several explicit examples: (i) we show reciprocity for a PT symmetric (hence parity violating) complex potential which admits penetrating state solutions analytically for all possible values of incidence energy and (ii) reciprocity is shown to hold at certain discrete energies for two other parity violating complex potentials.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); High Energy Physics – Theory (hep-th)

Loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing

B. Peng, S. K. Ozdemir, S. Rotter, H. Yilmaz, M. Liertzer, F. Monifi, C. M. Bender, F. Nori, L. Yang

Controlling and reversing the effects of loss are major challenges in optical systems. For lasers losses need to be overcome by a sufficient amount of gain to reach the lasing threshold. We show how to turn losses into gain by steering the parameters of a system to the vicinity of an exceptional point (EP), which occurs when the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenstates of a system coalesce. In our system of coupled microresonators, EPs are manifested as the loss-induced suppression and revival of lasing. Below a critical value, adding loss annihilates an existing Raman laser. Beyond this critical threshold, lasing recovers despite the increasing loss, in stark contrast to what would be expected from conventional laser theory. Our results exemplify the counterintuitive features of EPs and present an innovative method for reversing the effect of loss.

Optics (physics.optics); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Parity-time (PT) symmetric Double-lambda optical quadrimer waveguides in linear and nonlinear regimes

Samit Kumar Gupta, Jyoti Prasad Deka, Amarendra K. Sarma

We report a study on a closed-form optical quadrimer waveguides system. We have studied the beam dynamics of the system below, at and above the PT-threshold in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. We have also explored the effects of gain/loss parameter and the strength as well as the nature of the nonlinearity (i.e. focusing or defocusing) upon the evolution of optical intensity in each of the four sites. We observe saturation behaviors in the spatial power evolution, when nonlinearity is incorporated into the system, in the gain-guides, a feature that could be exploited for various practical applications.

Optics (physics.optics)