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Day November 14, 2013

Stability boundaries and collisions of two-dimensional solitons in PT-symmetric couplers with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity

Gennadiy Burlak, Boris A. Malomed

We introduce one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) models of parity-time PT-symmetric couplers with the mutually balanced linear gain and loss applied to the two cores, and cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinearity acting in each one. The 2D and 1D models may be realized in dual-core optical waveguides, in the spatiotemporal and spatial domains, respectively. Stationary solutions for PT-symmetric solitons in these systems reduce to their counterparts in the usual coupler. The most essential problem is the stability of the solitons, which become unstable against symmetry breaking with the increase of the energy (norm), and retrieve the stability at still larger energies. The boundary value of the intercore-coupling constant, above which the solitons are completely stable, is found by means of an analytical approximation, based on the CW (zero-dimensional) counterpart of the system. The approximation demonstrates good agreement with numerical findings for the 1D and 2D solitons. Numerical results for the stability limits of the 2D solitons are obtained by means of the computation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, and verified in direct simulations. Although large parts of the solitons families are unstable, the instability is quite weak. Collisions between 2D solitons in the PT-symmetric coupler are studied by means of simulations. Outcomes of the collisions are inelastic but not destructive, as they do not break the PT symmetry.
Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Optics (physics.optics)