July 2012
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Month July 2012

Hermitian Hamiltonian equivalent to a given non-Hermitian one. Manifestation of spectral singularity

Boris F. Samsonov

One of the simplest non-Hermitian Hamiltonians first proposed by Schwartz (1960 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 13 609) which may possess a spectral singularity is analyzed from the point of view of non-Hermitian generalization of quantum mechanics. It is shown that \(\eta\) operator, being a second order differential operator, has supersymmetric structure. Asymptotic behavior of eigenfunctions of a Hermitian Hamiltonian equivalent to the given non-Hermitian one is found. As a result the corresponding scattering matrix and cross section are given explicitly. It is demonstrated that the possible presence of the spectral singularity in the spectrum of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian may be detected as a resonance in the scattering cross section of its Hermitian counterpart. Nevertheless, just at the singular point the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian becomes undetermined.

Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Supersymmetric η operators

Boris F. Samsonov

Being chosen as a differential operator of a special form, metric \(\eta\) operator becomes unitary equivalent to a one-dimensional Hermitian Hamiltonian with a natural supersymmetric structure. We show that fixing the superpartner of this Hamiltonian permits to determine both the metric operator and corresponding non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. Moreover, under an additional restriction on the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, it becomes a superpartner of another Hermitian Hamiltonian.


Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Giant amplification of modes in PT-symmetric waveguides

Vladimir V. Konotop, Valery S. Shchesnovich, Dmitry A. Zezyulin

The combination of the interference with the amplification of modes in a waveguide with gain and losses can result in a giant amplification of the propagating beam, which propagates without distortion of its average amplitude. An increase of the gain-loss gradient by only a few times results in a magnification of the beam by a several orders of magnitude.

Optics (physics.optics)

Spectral singularity and deep multiple minima in the reflectivity in non-Hermitian (complex) Ginocchio potential

Ananya Ghatak, Bhabani Prasad Mandal, Zafar Ahmed

We bring out the existence of at most one spectral singularity (SS) and deep multiple minima in the reflectivity of the non-Hermitian (complex) Ginocchio potential. We find a parameter dependent single spectral singularity in this potential provided the imaginary part is emissive (not absorptive). The reflectionlessness of the real Hermitian Ginocchio’s potential at discrete positive energies gives way to deep multiple minima in reflectivity when this potential is perturbed and made non-Hermitian (complex). A novel co-existence of a SS with deep minima in reflectivity is also revealed wherein the first reflectivity zero of the Hermitian case changes to become a SS for the non-Hermitian case.


Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

PT-symmetry breaking and maximal chirality in a nonuniform PT-symmetric ring

Derek D. Scott, Yogesh N. Joglekar

We study the properties of an N-site tight-binding ring with parity and time-reversal (PT) symmetric, Hermitian, site-dependent tunneling and a pair of non-Hermitian, PT-symmetric, loss and gain impurities \(\pm i\gamma\). The properties of such lattices with open boundary conditions have been intensely explored over the past two years. We numerically investigate the PT-symmetric phase in a ring with a position-dependent tunneling function \(t_\alpha(k)=[k(N-k)]^{\alpha/2}\) that, in an open lattice, leads to a strengthened PT-symmetric phase, and study the evolution of the PT-symmetric phase from the open chain to a ring. We show that, generally, periodic boundary conditions weaken the PT-symmetric phase, although for experimentally relevant lattice sizes \(N \sim 50\), it remains easily accessible. We show that the chirality, quantified by the (magnitude of the) average transverse momentum of a wave packet, shows a maximum at the PT-symmetric threshold. Our results show that although the wavepacket intensity increases monotonically across the PT-breaking threshold, the average momentum decays monotonically on both sides of the threshold.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Optics (physics.optics)

Nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a PT symmetric delta-functions double well

Holger Cartarius, Daniel Haag, Dennis Dast, Günter Wunner

The time-independent nonlinear Schrodinger equation is solved for two attractive delta-function shaped potential wells where an imaginary loss term is added in one well, and a gain term of the same size but with opposite sign in the other. We show that for vanishing nonlinearity the model captures all the features known from studies of PT symmetric optical wave guides, e.g., the coalescence of modes in an exceptional point at a critical value of the loss/gain parameter, and the breaking of PT symmetry beyond. With the nonlinearity present, the equation is a model for a Bose-Einstein condensate with loss and gain in a double well potential. We find that the nonlinear Hamiltonian picks as stationary eigenstates exactly such solutions which render the nonlinear Hamiltonian itself PT symmetric, but observe coalescence and bifurcation scenarios different from those known from linear PT symmetric Hamiltonians.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Chaotic Dynamics (nlin.CD)

From scattering theory to complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators

Henning Schomerus

I review how methods from mesoscopic physics can be applied to describe the multiple wave scattering and complex wave dynamics in non-hermitian PT-symmetric resonators, where an absorbing region is coupled symmetrically to an amplifying region. Scattering theory serves as a convenient tool to classify the symmetries beyond the single-channel case and leads to effective descriptions which can be formulated in the energy domain (via Hamiltonians) and in the time domain (via time evolution operators). These models can then be used to identify the mesoscopic time and energy scales which govern the spectral transition from real to complex eigenvalues. The possible presence of magneto-optical effects (a finite vector potential) in multichannel systems leads to a variant (termed PTT’ symmetry) which imposes the same spectral constraints as PT symmetry. I also provide multichannel versions of generalized flux-conservation laws.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Optics (physics.optics)

PT-symmetric Double Well Potentials Revisited: Bifurcations, Stability and Dynamics

A.S. Rodrigues, K. Li, V. Achilleos, P.G. Kevrekidis, D.J. Frantzeskakis, Carl M. Bender

In this work we analyze PT-symmetric double-well potentials based on a two-mode picture. We reduce the problem into a PT-symmetric dimer and illustrate that the latter has effectively two fundamental bifurcations, a pitchfork (symmetry-breaking bifurcation) and a saddle-center one, which is the nonlinear analog of the PT-phase-transition. It is shown that the symmetry breaking leads to ghost states (amounting to growth or decay); although these states are not true solutions of the original continuum problem, the system’s dynamics closely follows them, at least in its metastable evolution. Past the second bifurcation, there are no longer states of the original continuum system. Nevertheless, the solutions can be analytically continued to yield a new pair of branches, which is also identified and dynamically examined. Our explicit analytical results for the dimer are directly compared to the full continuum problem, yielding a good agreement.

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS); Quantum Gases (cond-mat.quant-gas); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Unbounded C-symmetries and their nonuniqueness

Carl M. Bender, Sergii Kuzhel

It is shown that if the C operator for a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian with simple eigenvalues is not unique, then it is unbounded. Apart from the special cases of finite-matrix Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians generated by differential expressions with PT-symmetric point interactions, the usual situation is that the C operator is unbounded. The fact that the C operator is unbounded is significant because, while there is a formal equivalence between a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian and a conventionally Hermitian Hamiltonian in the sense that the two Hamiltonians are isospectral, the Hilbert spaces are inequivalent. This is so because the mapping from one Hilbert space to the other is unbounded. This shows that PT-symmetric quantum theories are mathematically distinct from conventional Hermitian quantum theories.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Classical Trajectories of the Continuum States of the \(\cal{PT}\) symmetric Scarf II potential

Anjana Sinha

We apply the factorization technique developed by Kuru et. al. [Ann. Phys. {\bf 323} (2008) 413] to obtain the exact analytical classical trajectories and momenta of the continuum states of the non Hermitian but \(\cal{PT}\) symmetric Scarf II potential. In particular, we observe that the strange behaviour of the quantum version at the spectral singularity has an interesting classical analogue.

Quantum Physics (quant-ph); Mathematical Physics (math-ph)