Matthew Russo, S. Roy Choudhury

This paper develops two approaches to Lax-integrbale systems with spatiotemporally varying coefficients. A technique based on extended Lax Pairs is first considered to derive variable-coefficient generalizations of various Lax-integrable NLPDE hierarchies recently introduced in the literature. As illustrative examples, we consider generalizations of the NLS and DNLS equations, as well as a PT-symmetric version of the NLS equation. It is demonstrated that the techniques yield Lax- or S-integrable NLPDEs with both time- AND space-dependent coefficients which are thus more general than almost all cases considered earlier via other methods such as the Painleve Test, Bell Polynomials, and various similarity methods. However, this technique, although operationally effective, has the significant disadvantage that, for any integrable system with spatiotemporally varying coefficients, one must ‘guess’ a generalization of the structure of the known Lax Pair for the corresponding system with constant coefficients. Motivated by the somewhat arbitrary nature of the above procedure, we therefore next attempt to systematize the derivation of Lax-integrable sytems with variable coefficients. We attempt to apply the Estabrook- Wahlquist (EW) prolongation technique, a relatively self-consistent procedure requiring little prior infomation. However, this immediately requires that the technique be significantly generalized or broadened in several different ways. The new and extended EW technique which results is illustrated by algorithmically deriving generalized Lax-integrable versions of NLS, PT-symmetric NLS, and DNLS equations.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0645

Analysis of PDEs (math.AP); Exactly Solvable and Integrable Systems (nlin.SI)

M.H. Teimourpour, R. El-Ganainy, A. Eisfeld, A. Szameit, D.N Christodoulides

We introduce a recursive bosonic quantization technique for generating classical PT photonic structures that possess hidden symmetries and higher order exceptional points. We study light transport in these geometries and we demonstrate that perfect state transfer is possible only for certain initial conditions. Moreover, we show that for the same propagation direction, left and right coherent transports are not symmetric with field amplitudes following two different trajectories. A general scheme for identifying the conservation laws in such PT-symmetric photonic networks is also presented.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1408.1561

Optics (physics.optics); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)

Hossein Hodaei, Mohammad-Ali Miri, Matthias Heinrich, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, Mercedeh Khajavikhan

We demonstrate experimentally that stable single longitudinal mode operation can be readily achieved in PT-symmetric arrangements of coupled microring resonators. Whereas any active resonator is in principle capable of displaying single-wavelength operation, selective breaking of PT-symmetry can be utilized to systematically enhance the maximum achievable gain of this mode, even if a large number of competing longitudinal or transverse resonator modes fall within the amplification bandwidth of the inhomogeneously broadened active medium. This concept is robust with respect to fabrication tolerances, and its mode selectivity is established without the need for additional components or specifically designed filters. Our results may pave the way for a new generation of versatile cavities lasing at a desired longitudinal resonance. Along these lines, traditionally highly multi-moded microring resonator configurations can be fashioned to suppress all but one longitudinal mode.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.2103

Optics (physics.optics)

Matthew Russo, S. Roy Choudhury

We present a technique based on extended Lax Pairs to derive variable-coefficient generalizations of various Lax-integrable NLPDE hierarchies. As illustrative examples, we consider generalizations of KdV equations, three variants of generalized MKdV equations, and a recently-considered nonlocal PT-symmetric NLS equation. It is demonstrated that the technique yields Lax- or S-integrable NLPDEs with both time- AND space-dependent coefficients which are thus more general than almost all cases considered earlier via other methods such as the Painleve Test, Bell Polynomials, and various similarity methods. Employing the Painleve singular manifold method, some solutions are also presented for the generalized variable-coefficient integrable KdV and MKdV equations derived here. Current and future work is centered on generalizing other integrable hierarchies of NLPDEs similarly, and deriving various integrability properties such as solutions, Backlund Transformations, and hierarchies of conservation laws for these new integrable systems with variable coefficients.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.4602

Mathematical Physics (math-ph)

Ramy El-Ganainy, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Li Ge

We investigate the rich physics of photonic molecule lasers using a non-Hermitian dimer model. We show that several interesting features, predicted recently using a rigorous steady state ab-initio laser theory (SALT), can be captured by this toy model. In particular, we demonstrate the central role played by exceptional points in both pump-selective lasing and laser self-terminations phenomena. Due to its transparent mathematical structure, our model provides a lucid understanding for how different physical parameters (optical loss, modal coupling between microcavities and pump profiles) affect the lasing action. Interestingly, our analysis also confirms that, for frequency mismatched cavities, operation in the proximity of exceptional points (without actually crossing the square root singularities) can still lead to laser self-termination. We confirm this latter prediction for two coupled slab cavities using scattering matrix analysis and SALT technique. In addition, we employ our model to investigate the pump-controlled lasing action and we show that emission patterns are governed by the locations of exceptional points in the gain parameter space. Finally we extend these results to multi-cavity photonic molecules, where we found the existence of higher-order EPs and pump-induced localization.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.1242

Optics (physics.optics)

Amarendra K. Sarma, Mohammad-Ali Miri, Ziad H. Musslimani, Demetrios N. Christodoulides

We investigate the dynamical behavior of continuous and discrete Schr\”odinger systems exhibiting parity-time (PT) invariant nonlinearities. We show that such equations behave in a fundamentally different fashion than their nonlinear Schr\”odinger counterparts. In particular, the PT-symmetric nonlinear Schr\”odinger equation can simultaneously support both bright and dark soliton solutions. In addition, we study a two-element discretized version of this PT nonlinear Schr\”odinger equation. By obtaining the underlying invariants, we show that this system is fully integrable and we identify the PT-symmetry breaking conditions. This arrangement is unique in the sense that the exceptional points are fully dictated by the nonlinearity itself.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.7399

Pattern Formation and Solitons (nlin.PS)

F. Nazari, N. Bender, H. Ramezani, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, D. N. Christodoulides, T. Kottos

We introduce a new type of Fano resonances, realized in a photonic circuit which consists of two nonlinear PT-symmetric micro-resonators side-coupled to a waveguide, which have line-shape and resonance position that depends on the direction of the incident light. We utilize these features in order to induce asymmetric transport up to 47 dBs in the optical C-window. Our set-up requires low input power and does not compromise the power and frequency characteristics of the output signal.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.2313

Optics (physics.optics)

O. Vazquez-Candanedo, J. C. Hernandez-Herrejon, F. M. Izrailev, D. N. Christodoulides

We investigate the properties of PT-symmetric tight-binding models by considering both bounded and unbounded models. For the bounded case, we obtain closed form expressions for the corresponding energy spectra and we analyze the structure of eigenstates as well as their dependence on the gain/loss contrast parameter. For unbounded PT-lattices, we explore their scattering properties through the development of analytical models. Based on our approach we identify a mechanism that is responsible to the emergence of localized states that are entirely due to the presence of gain and loss. The derived expressions for the transmission and reflection coefficients allow one to better understand the role of PT-symmetry in energy transport problems occurring in such PT-symmetric tight-binding settings. Our analytical results are further exemplified via pertinent examples.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.6708

Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics (cond-mat.mes-hall)

Jiteng Sheng, Mohammad-Ali Miri, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, Min Xiao

We demonstrate that a coherently-prepared four-level atomic medium can provide a versatile platform for realizing parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials. Different types of PT-symmetric potentials are proposed by appropriately tuning the exciting optical fields and the pertinent atomic parameters. Such reconfigurable and controllable systems can open up new avenues in observing PT-related phenomena with appreciable gain/loss contrast in coherent atomic media.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.4908

Optics (physics.optics)

Mohammad-Ali Miri, Matthias Heinrich, Demetrios N. Christodoulides

We show that the formalism of supersymmetry (SUSY), when applied to parity-time (PT) symmetric optical potentials, can give rise to novel refractive index landscapes with altogether non-trivial properties. In particular, we find that the presence of gain and loss allows for arbitrarily removing bound states from the spectrum of a structure. This is in stark contrast to the Hermitian case, where the SUSY formalism can only address the fundamental mode of a potential. Subsequently we investigate isospectral families of complex potentials that exhibit entirely real spectra, despite the fact that their shapes violate PT-symmetry. Finally, the role of SUSY transformations in the regime of spontaneously broken PT symmetry is investigated.

http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.1689

Optics (physics.optics); Mathematical Physics (math-ph); Quantum Physics (quant-ph)